Tuesday, April 05, 2005

Turkey, The Fundamental Law and abolition of the sultanate

The Kemalists were now faced with local uprisings, official Ottoman forces, and Greek hostility. The first necessity was to establish a legitimate basis of action. A parliament (the Grand National Assembly) met at Ankara on April 23 and asserted that the sultan's government was under infidel control and that it was the duty of Muslims to resist foreign encroachment.

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Alexander The Great, Asia Minor and the Battle of Issus

In winter 334–333 Alexander conquered western Asia Minor, subduing the hill tribes of Lycia and Pisidia; and in spring 333 he advanced along the coastal road to Perga, passing the cliffs of Mt. Climax, thanks to a fortunate change of wind. The fall in the level of the sea was interpreted as a mark of divine favour by Alexander's flatterers, including the historian Callisthenes. At

Thursday, March 31, 2005


(Hindi), Urdu-Persian  Beradari  (“brotherhood”), important instrument of caste self-government in India; the bhaiband is the council formed by the heads of families that belong to the same lineage in a particular area, thus constituting an exogamous (those who do not intermarry) unit within the endogamous (those who do intermarry) caste group. One of their concerns, in addition to questions arising as a

Tuesday, March 29, 2005


Superficial skin lesions caused by certain fungi that live and multiply on the surface of the skin and feed on keratin, the horny protein constituting the major part of the outermost layer of the skin and of the hair and nails. The fungi produce responses in the skin that vary from slight scaling to blistering and marked disruption of the keratin layer. The lesions

Monday, March 28, 2005

Cachoeira Do Sul

City and river port, central Rio Grande do Sul estado (“state”), southern Brazil. It lies along the Jacuí River at 200 feet (60 m) above sea level. Founded in 1819 as São João de Cachoeira and given city status in 1859, Cachoeira do Sul is the centre of one of Brazil's major rice-growing areas. Rice, wool, wheat, and fruits are processed and shipped from the city, which is about 103 miles (165 km) west of Pôrto

Friday, March 25, 2005

Biblical Literature, The Babylonian Exile and the restoration

The Babylonian Exile (586–538) marks an epochal dividing point in Old Testament history, standing between what were subsequently to be designated the pre-exilic and post-exilic eras. The Judahite community in Babylonia was, on the whole, more Yahwist in religion than ever, following the Mosaic Law, emphasizing and redefining such distinctive elements as circumcision and

Thursday, March 24, 2005

Confederation, Articles Of

First U.S. constitution (1781–89), which served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the U.S. Constitution of 1787. Because the experience of overbearing British central authority was vivid in colonial minds, the drafters of the Articles deliberately established a confederation


Also spelled  Csardas , Hungarian  Csárdás  national dance of Hungary. A courting dance for couples, it begins with a slow section (lassu), followed by an exhilarating fast section (friss). The individual dancers carry themselves proudly and improvise on a simple fundamental step, their feet snapping inward and outward, the couples whirling. The music, often played by a Gypsy orchestra, is in 2/4 or 4/4 time with compelling,